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Fortnightly Review

Published 1865-1954. Monthly, 1s. Signed contributions. ‘Sought to create a new middle-class reading market, one that would accept serial fiction alongside weighty articles and reviews.’ ‘Became known as a Liberal, free-thinking journal . . . serious, often reformist’. (See DNCJ, where all quotations appear, for further information and references to additional sources; online edition ProQuest British Periodicals.)

Stott, George.“History of the Sect of Maharajahs Or Vallabhacharyans in Western India.” Fortnightly Review, 2, no. 0: (15 August 1865): 125–26.
        Publisher is Trubner; author is Mulji Karsandas.
Seebohm, F.“THE BLACK DEATH, AND ITS PLACE IN ENGLISH HISTORY (1).” Fortnightly Review, 1, no. 0: (15 September 1865): 149–60.
        Seebohm discusses evidence that demonstrates a very large proportion of the people of England died of the plague in 1348-9. As well, he answers questions concerning how the English peasantry became detached from the land and what caused the conditions of England’s towns and cities to worsen. Immigration is also mentioned as a factor affecting England’s population. This article demonstrates that the population of England was much larger before the plague, than was originally assumed.
Seebohm, F.“THE BLACK DEATH, AND ITS PLACE IN ENGLISH HISTORY (2).” Fortnightly Review, 2, no. 0: (15 September 1865): 268–79.
        Seebohm continues his article with a discussion of how the extreme depopulation caused by the Plague in the fourteenth century affected the relationship between land and labour. He states that a sudden fall in the market value of land and the sudden rise in the market value of labour were inevitable. This article also states that it was not until the sixteenth century that the value of land began to rise again. With this rise in land value also came a rise in the value of house property. Seehbohm also mentions the effect that war had on the population.
Jewitt, Llewellyn.“The Wedgwoods: Being a Life of Josiah Wedgwood; with Notices of His Works and Their Productions, Memoirs of the Wedgwood and Other Families, and a History of the Early Potteries of Staffordshire.” Fortnightly Review, 2, no. 0: (15 October 1865): 637–38.
        A ‘sympathising and intelligent appreciation’, including historic survey of Staffordshire potteries back to the Celtic period.
Godkin, G. S.“History of the Viceroys of Ireland, with Notices of the Castle of Dublin and Its Chief Occupants in Former Times.” Fortnightly Review, 3, no. 14: (December 1865): 251–53.
        States this work is accurate, reliable, useful, and valuable; author is J.T. Gilbert; publisher is James Duffy.
        Author is Lionel James Trotter, who recognizes ‘it is time we did something more than take a merely “general interest” in the record of deeds of arms, and in sensation sketches of savage tribes, gorgeous native courts, strange manners, stranger rites, and all the “contrasts” in which most Indian historians have delighted.’
Barham, Francis.“History of Hebrew Philology.” Fortnightly Review, 3, no. 17: (15 January 1866): 566–74.
        Hebrew Philology is ‘illustrated by the chronological succession of its chief grammars and dictionaries’ (566). This article provides a brief account of the most distinguished works, including those of Zohar, Akiba and Origen. Issues of concern include how the letters of the Hebrew alphabet have their own significance and the distinct nature of the Hebrew language. Following the topic of grammar, is a second branch of Hebrew Philology called Hebrew Lexicography. The coverage is the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Browning, Oscar.“Trollope’s History of Florence.” Fortnightly Review, 4, no. 19: (15 February 1866): 70–86.
        The review is primarily an essay in praise of Florence. Browning engages with T. Augustus Trollope’s analysis in a number of places but priases his ‘pure and lucid’ style, which, unlike that of his novels, is not dull.
Fagan, H. S.“A Constitutional History of the British Empire; from the Accession of Charles I. to the Restoration:” Fortnightly Review, 4, no. 21: (15 March 1866): 377–81.
        Author is George Brodie, a ‘nondescript’ historian who ‘tears the soft veil of distance off the middle ages, and displays feudal times in even more than their natural ugliness.’ So fond are English readers of ‘this kind of history’, however, ‘that a few months “dryasdust” research will give any man a cheap reputaton as a historian.’
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“THE MYTHICAL AND ROMANTIC ELEMENTS IN EARLY ENGLISH HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 4, no. 24: (May 1866): 641–68.
        Freeman separates English history into four categories: historical, romantic, traditional and mythical. ‘Simple historic truth’ and ‘the historic mind’ must struggle against myth, legend, and tradition.
Dennis, John.“Researches into the History of the British Dog.” Fortnightly Review, 5, no. 30: (August 1866): 768.
        The book is unsatisfactory -- has no plan, but rather ‘is a confused mass of details’; however many of the illustrations are excellent. Author is George R. Jesse; publisher is Robert Hardwicke.
Bell, Robert.“The History of Signboards.” Fortnightly Review, 6, no. 33: (15 September 1866): 376–80.
        An episode in the history of advertising. Authors are Jacob Larwood & John Camden Hotten; publisher is Hotten.
Molesworth, W. N.“HISTORY OF THE REFORM QUESTION FROM 1832 TO 1848.” Fortnightly Review, 7, no. 4: (April 1867): 389–409.
        Molesworth discusses the various events involved in the Chartist movement and its successors. He discusses the actions of the Working Men’s Association, which advocated for the social improvement of the working class. The obstacles of the Chartists and how they overcame these problems is also discussed. Continued in June 1867 issue, pp 743-747.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“The Relations between the Crowns of England and Scotland.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 7 O.S., 1 N.S., JUNE 1867: (June 1867): 697–714.
        Freeman observes that ‘the popular and romantic English mind’ likes to take the Scottish side in controversy, and refers to his own debate with Robertson, outlined in History of the Norman Conquest.
Morley, John.“MR. FROUDE ON THE SCIENCE OF HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 2, no. 8: (August 1867): 226–37.
        Article is signed ‘Editor’. The author remarks on the antipathy aroused by attempts to make history a science, excoriating in particular a recent publication of Froude’s lecture on this subject. Attribution Wellesley Index.
Giffen, Robert.“Lives of Indian Officers: Illustrative of the History of the Civil and Military Services of India.” Fortnightly Review, 2, no. 9: (September 1867): 376.
        One of the objects of this book is ‘to popularise Indian history and the Indian service by means of specimen biographies.’ Author is John William Kaye, whose main purpose is ‘that of interesting a new generation of Englishmen in an Indian career.’ Attribution Wellesley Index.
Morley, John.“Three English Statesmen: A Course of Lectures on the Political History of England.” Fortnightly Review, 2, no. 9: (September 1867): 373–76.
        Author is Goldwin Smith, whose subjects are Py, Cromwell and the second Pitt. He uses history to critique contemporary politics. Attribution Wellesley Index.
Conway, Moncure D.“The History of Israel to the Death of Moses.” Fortnightly Review, 2, no. 12: (December 1867): 732–34.
        Praise for the ‘genius and scholarship’ of Heinrich Ewald; translator is Russell Martineau. Published by Longman.
Kaye, J. W.“History of the French in India.” Fortnightly Review, 3, no. 14: (February 1868): 222–25.
        The review regards British management of India as superior to French efforts. Book is by Major G. B. Malleson.
Morley, John.“The History of the French Revolution.” Fortnightly Review, 3, no. 15: (March 1868): 345–48.
        Praise for Heinrich von Sybel’s even-handed treatment of the subject; translator is Walter C. Perry. Signed ‘Editor’.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“Mr. Pearson’s Early and Middle Ages of England.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 9 O.S., 3 N.S., APRIL 1868: (April 1868): 397–404.
        Review of Charles H. Pearson’s book. Freeman is scathing about the first volume, a revision of an immature work and still rife with error. Second volume is more knowledgeable but still marred by author’s scientific approach to history.
Kirkus, William.“The History of the Kings of Rome.” Fortnightly Review, 3, no. 18: (June 1868): 718–20.
        Author is Thomas Henry Dyer.
Fiske, John.“THE LAWS OF HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 4, no. 21: (September 1868): 277–99.
        Fiske discusses the doctrine of free-will and volition and considers the connection between action and motive. Fiske also mentions the teleological doctrine, while pointing out its disadvantages.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“Kirk’s History of Charles the Bold.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 10 O.S., 4 N.S., OCTOBER 1868: (October 1868): 349–68.
        Review of a 3-volume work by John Foster Kirk, published by Murray. The subject is described as attractive and important, but the writing is sometimes ‘wild’ or ‘extravagant.’ Freeman refers to his own comments on the first two volumes in National Review. .
Colvin, Sidney.“History of Art.” Fortnightly Review, 4, no. 24: (December 1868): 697–99.
        Author is Dr. Wilhelm Lubke; translator is F.E. Bunnett.
Colvin, Sidney.“Italian Sculptors: Being a History of Sculpture in Northern, Southern, and Eastern Italy.” Fortnightly Review, 5, no. 25: (January 1869): 123–25.
        Author is Charles Perkins.
“History of England from the Earliest to the Present Time.” Fortnightly Review, 5, no. 28: (April 1869): 504.
        Sir Edward Creasy’s book is judged to be a good addition to the many texts books for students about the topic, but not a useful contribution to history.
“A History of Chemical Theory from the Age of Lavoisier to the Present Time.” Fortnightly Review, 5, no. 29: (May 1869): 631.
        Author is A. A. Wurtz; translator is Henry Watts.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“Mr. Longman’s Life and Times of Edward The Third.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 11 O.S., 5 N.S., MAY 1869: (May 1869): 586–96.
        Review of a 2-volume work by William Longman, who is described as having done quite well for an author who is not a lifelong student of history.
“Old English History for Children.” Fortnightly Review, 6, no. 35: (November 1869): 584.
        E. A. Freeman’s book is described as simple and useful to children; the maps presented are particularly useful.
Cox, George William.“The History of the Norman Conquest of England.” Fortnightly Review, 7, no. 39: (March 1870): 318–32.
        Review of the first three volumes of Edward A. Freeman’s book, published by the Clarendon Press, Oxford. Praises the author’s patience, vast research and vivid narrative, but Cox allies himself with ‘the Edinburgh reviewer’ in pointing out some inadequacies.
“History of England, Comprising the Reign of Queen Anne, until the Peace of Utrecht.” Fortnightly Review, 7, no. 40: (April 1870): 502–3.
        Brief notice of Earl Stanhope’s work, identifying it as the link between Macaulay and Mahon.
“The Land War in Ireland: A History for the Times.” Fortnightly Review, 7, no. 40: (April 1870): 502.
        Author is James Godkin.
“History of Europe during the French Revolution, Vols 3 & 4.” Fortnightly Review, 7, no. 41: (May 1870): 640.
        Author is von Sybel; translator is Walter C. Perry.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“The Use of Historical Documents.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 16 O.S., 10 N.S., SEPTEMBER 1871: (September 1871): 321–36.
        Freeman’s meditation is primarily a scathing critique of Froude, using Haddan and Stubbs as examples of historians who use archival sources appropriately.
Colvin, Sidney.“A Concise History of Painting.” Fortnightly Review, 13, no. 74: (February 1873): 278–79.
        The work is described as well managed, well arranged, and not repetitious; author is Mary Margaret (Mrs Charles A.) Heaton.
Simcox, Edith.“History of Bokhara, from the Earliest Period down to the Present, Composed for the First Time after Oriental Known and Unknown Historical Manuscripts.” Fortnightly Review, 13, no. 76: (April 1873): 544–45.
        Reviewer points out that Vambery’s book (published by H. S. King & Co.) is on a very difficult subject, given the lack of sources and the lack of ‘the national life that might have tempted an historian.’
Simcox, Edith.“A History of Crime in England, Illustrating the Changes of the Laws in the Progress of Civilisation. Written from the Public Records and Other Contemporary Evidence.” Fortnightly Review, 14, no. 81: (September 1873): 409–10.
        Author is Luke Owen Pike.
Cohn, Gustav.“THE HISTORY AND PRESENT STATE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY IN GERMANY.” Fortnightly Review, 14, no. 81: (September 1873): 337–50.
        Cohn gives some account of German political economy, and the origin and characteristic tenets of the German ‘Manchester school.’ He also discusses the recent social movements which have brought the two schools together; these parties being scientific economists and the Manchester party. The article ends with remarks on the present state of economic science in Germany and abroad and offers a solution to the great questions of social life which have brought trouble to economists. This article discusses issues from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Simcox, Edith.“The History of Jesus of Nazarath, Considered in Its Connection with the National Life of Israel, and Related in Detail.” Fortnightly Review, 14, no. 81: (September 1873): 409.
        Review states the author (Theodore Keim) is unbiased, competent, and certain of his work.
Simcox, Edith.“The Rajas of the Punjab: Being the History of the Principal States in the Punjab, and Their Political Relations with the British Government. 2nd Edition.” Fortnightly Review, 14, no. 81: (September 1873): 408–9.
        Review states that this work is a valuable chronicle of this specific historical event. Author is Lepel H. Griffin. The Rajas of the Punjab: being the History of the Principal States in the Punjab, and their Political Relations with the British Government.
Simcox, Edith.“The Religious History of Ireland, Primitive, Papal, and Protestant.” Fortnightly Review, 14, no. 81: (September 1873): 410.
        Simcox regards James Godkin’s book ( publisher is H. S. King & Co.) as almost too impartial.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“The Growth of Commonwealths.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 20 O.S., 14 N.S., OCTOBER 1873: (October 1873): 434–56.
        An essay on the constitutional background to contemporary debates about constitutional change in various European countries.
Stephen, Leslie.“TAINE’S HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.” Fortnightly Review, 14, no. 84: (December 1873): 693–714.
        Stephen reviews some of the known faults of Taine’s history of English literature, which include making critical judgments and a questionable philosophy, as well as leading principles of which it is difficult to grasp the meaning. Although Stephens points out Taine’s flaws, he still praises him.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“Federalism and Home Rule.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 22 O.S., 16 N.S., AUGUST 1874: (August 1874): 204–15.
        Offers a historical perspective on the relationship between Ireland and England, in light of the contemporary controversy over Isaac Butt’s proposals for home rule.
Morley, John.“Mr. Flint’s Philosophy of History (Vol 1).” Fortnightly Review, 16, no. 93: (September 1874): 338–52.
        Author is Robert Flint.
Beesly, Edward Spencer.“THE HISTORY OF REPUBLICANISM IN FRANCE.” Fortnightly Review, 16, no. 94: (October 1874): 471–94.
        Beesly gives a brief, but comprehensive view of the history of the republican party in France, followed by an estimate of the party’s prospects. This article states that because the Revolution was in full swing for two years before there was any republican party, that republicanism was not born out of the revolution, as if commonly believed. Beesly also discusses the bourgeoisie and peasant class. This article covers the late 18th century and the 19th century.
Leslie, Thomas Edward Cliffe.“Maine’s Early History of Institutions (Vol 17, 1874).” Fortnightly Review, 17, no. 99: (March 1875): 305–20.
        Author is Sir Henry Summer Maine.
Colvin, Sidney.“THE HISTORY OF A PAVEMENT.” Fortnightly Review, 18, no. 103: (July 1875): 42–63.
        Colvin discusses the pavement of the metropolitan church of the Virgin in Siena, arguing that the pavement of this church tells the whole artistic history (for nearly two hundred years) of a ‘brilliant community.’ Colvin discusses the addition to the church in 1260, which incorporated a Gothic style. The style of flooring and the subjects depicted on the floor are of concern. The coverage for this article is from the thirteenth century onward.
Leslie, Thomas Edward Cliffe.“THE HISTORY OF GERMAN POLITICAL ECONOMY.” Fortnightly Review, 18, no. 103: (July 1875): 93–101.
        Leslie describes two conceptions of political economy in Europe: English and German. The purpose of this article is to indicate some of the leading features in the history of this area of German thought, with some observations suggested by Dr. Roscher’s History of Political Economy in Germany. Leslie states that the German political economy is divided, by Roscher, into three periods: the theological and humanistic period, State regulation and fiscal science and the third begins with the introduction of the system of Physiocrats into Germany. The coverage begins in the late eighteenth century until the 1860s.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“The Law of Honour.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 26 O.S., 20 N.S., DECEMBER 1876: (December 1876): 731–51.
        Draws on historical evidence for a discussion of contemporary standards of chivalry and honour, and the status of a gentleman.
Tylor, Edward Burnett (Sir).“THE HISTORY OF GAMES.” Fortnightly Review, 25, no. 149: (May 1879): 735–47.
        Tylor discusses the origins of certain games and shows that they have a different meaning in some countries. Some games that Tylor discusses includes a seizing-game, ball games and sedentary games (which includes games that use lots or dice for gambling). Games from Brittany, Greece and Persia, etc. are discussed. Tylor concludes that there is progress in games, just as there is in civilization.
Stephen, Leslie.“AN ATTEMPTED PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 27, no. 161: (May 1880): 672–95.
        Stephen states that during 1850-60 there were two great intellectual ‘shocks’, the first volume of Buckle’s History of Civilization and Darwin’s Origin of Species. Of the two, it is Darwin who receives more attention. Stephen critiques Buckle’s work and thoughts to help overcome this problem. Stephen criticizes Buckle, but views his work as valuable and is seen as an effective stimulant.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“ON THE STUDY OF HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 29, no. 171: (March 1881): 319–39.
        Freeman’s article incorporates a history of history; including the reaction of the general public to history and those who write it. Historians must be prepared for criticism; and history is about truth. Freeman states that it is good for historians to be knowledgeable about specific periods in history, but most importantly, they should know the general outline of history.
Pollock, Frederick (Sir).“THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LAW AS A BRANCH OF POLITICS.” Fortnightly Review, 30, no. 178: (October 1881): 478–98.
        Pollock addresses the reasons why certain events, laws, etc. are important, and the ways in which legal institutions and ideas have power in politics. To do this, Pollock examines the legal aspect of English politics at critical points in history, when English institutions were most active. Three specific periods are used: the twelfth and thirteenth centuries when constructive work was done on English institutions, the struggle between King and Parliament, which resulted in the Civil War and the Commonwealth, and also the formation of the modern constitution which occurred after James II abdicated the throne.
Leslie, Thomas Edward Cliffe.“THE HISTORY AND FUTURE OF INTEREST AND PROFIT.” Fortnightly Review, 30, no. 179: (November 1881): 640–59.
        Leslie states that the concept of interest under the name of usury existed in a much earlier stage of society than is commonly assumed; usury has often been attributed to the Christian Church. Leslie says that two practices in relation to the payment of interest co-existed in the fourteenth century, one from social ‘infancy’ and the other developed in the progressing interaction between mercantile people. This article also discusses what the medieval rate of interest was during the fourteenth century onward. Also discussed are factors that cause interest to rise and fall.
Blennerhassett, Charlotte Julia (Lady).“A Page of Diplomatic History (Vol 1).” Fortnightly Review, 30, no. 180: (December 1881): 759–77.
        Examines the collections of letters between Baron Stael-Holstein and Baron Brinksman (on the revolution of 1783-1799) from 1783 to 1799. Editor is L. Leouzon Le Duc.
Browning, Oscar.“England and France in 1793.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 39 O.S., 33 N.S., FEBRUARY 1883: (February 1883): 255–71.
        Detailed account of events at a crucial point in the French revolution, raising the question about whether the rupture between the two nations could have been avoided.
Smith, Goldwin.“THE FALLACY OF IRISH HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 35, no. 205: (January 1884): 37–49.
        Smith aims to discount the historical guilt placed on the British for their involvement with the Irish. Two events are discussed to demonstrate how the British have been blamed: the Norman Conquest and the great European schism which brought on the religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Smith discusses these events and also explains North America’s role in the negative treatment of the Irish. There is also a brief comparison of the Irish in Canada and the U.S.
Burnand, Francis Cowley (Sir).“HISTORY IN PUNCH (1 and 2).” Fortnightly Review, 40, no. 235; 240: (July 1886): 737–52.
        These articles discuss the many events in history that have been portrayed in cartoon form in Punch, beginning with the Exhibition of 1851. Other events and people include the Pre-Raphaelite movement, bloomerism, Benjamin Disraeli and Napoleon. The article continues by incorporating more events and people that became the ‘butt’ of 'Mr Punch’s" cartoons. The time frame is 1851- 1861. Second contributor is Arthur William A Beckett.
A Beckett, Arthur William.“HISTORY IN PUNCH (3).” Fortnightly Review, 41, no. 244: (April 1887): 546–57.
        This article discusses events from 1861 until about 1864. Themes include war, politics and society. Topics of interest include the marriage of the Prince of Wales and Shakespeare. Second contributor is Francis Cowley Burnand.
Seeley, John Robert (Sir).“Georgian and Victorian Expansion.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 48 O.S., 42 N.S., JULY 1887: (July 1887): 123–39.
        Seeley compares the policies of English governments in the two periods, with particular reference to the development of colonies and dependencies. Notes that in the 18th century, war takes the place of colonization. The occasion is the 1887 Rede Lecture at Cambridge.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“The House of Lords and the County Councils.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 49 O.S., 43 N.S., MAY 1888: (May 1888): 589–604.
        Offers a historical perspective on contemporary debates about two institutions: the role of bishops in the House of Lords and the role of the county magistracy.
Ingram, Thomas Dunbar.“Two Centuries of Irish History: A Review.” Fortnightly Review, 45, no. 266: (February 1889): 229–44.
        Examines 200 years of Irish history by examining what events different works focused on, how the events may have been presented differently by various historians, and looks at the work of Sullivan and Foster in the most detail.
Gattie, Walter Montagu.“A PAGE IN THE HISTORY OF A MONOPOLY.” Fortnightly Review, 45, no. 268: (April 1889): 490–500.
        Gattie discusses the monopoly over lighthouses held by the ‘Elder Brothers’ of Trinity House who were able to raise money by means of tolls for the maintenance of their lights and buoys. The downfall of this group is also discussed. The coverage is the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century.
Freeman, Edward Augustus.“The House of Habsburg in South-Eastern Europe.” Fortnightly Review, VOLUME 51 O.S., 45 N.S., JUNE 1889: (June 1889): 839–51.
        Commenting on an article by J. D. Bourchier on the same subject, appearing in the previous issue.
Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett.“THE HISTORY OF A MOVEMENT.” Fortnightly Review, 53, no. 315: (March 1893): 404–17.
        Anderson gives an outline of the history of the movement for women’s admission into the medical profession, discussing Elizabeth Blackwell and others, including herself. The coverage is the 1850s to the 1890s in Britain and Ireland.
Reid, Andrew.“HISTORY IN ADVERTISEMENTS.” Fortnightly Review, 66, no. 394: (October 1899): 576–88.
        Reid argues that the history of England can be found in advertisements. Topics within these advertisements include book releases, religion, hygiene, politics and social history.
Foxcroft, Helen Charlotte.“THE ‘DREYFUS SCANDAL’ OF ENGLISH HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 66, no. 394: (October 1899): 563–75.
        Foxcroft discusses the wrongful conviction of the Jewish captain, Alfred Dreyfus and the anti-semitic sentiments that led to it. Other similar cases are intertwined into the story and proceedings of his case. The negative role of the press and British parliament are also discussed.
Firth, J.  B.“THE GUERILLA IN HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 70, no. 419: (November 1901): 803–11.
        Firth discusses guerrilla warfare as applied to the Boer war in South Africa, the Peninsular War, the American Civil war and other conflicts.
Holyoake, George Jacob.“HIGHER CO-OPERATION: ITS INNER HISTORY.” Fortnightly Review, 71, no. 421: (January 1902): 81–101.
        Holyoake discusses self-helping co-operation, whose original aim was to increase the income of working people through industrial honesty, intelligence and independence. Holyoake discusses the two divisions of co-operation: Distributive and Productive. Also discussed is the opening of a working people’s store and factors that led to the failure of this co-operation. The discussion begins around 1777 until roughly 1900.
Hall, Henry Foljambe.“ENGLISH HISTORY IN NAPOLEON’S NOTE-BOOKS.” Fortnightly Review, 75, no. 446: (February 1904): 233–43.
        Hall discusses the contents of Napoleon’s notebooks in order to discuss English history. He incorporates the life of Emperor Napoleon I from his birth, to his time in school, and his time in battle.
Hillier, Walter C.“KOREA: ITS HISTORY AND PROSPECTS.” Fortnightly Review, 75, no. 450: (June 1904): 946–54.
        Hillier discusses Korea’s origins, religion, customs and class systems, beginning in 70 AD. The history section includes rises and falls in the level of warfare and also discusses the rivalry between China and Japan for control of Korea.
Militarist.“‘THE TIMES’ HISTORY OF THE WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA.” Fortnightly Review, 77, no. 462: (June 1905): 1075–93.
        Under the pseudonym ‘Militarist,’ the author critiques the interpretation of the Boer war made by Leopold S. Amery, who edited the third volume of The Times history of the Boer War.
Magnus, Laurie.“NOTES ON THE HISTORY AND CHARACTER OF THE JEWS.” Fortnightly Review, 79, no. 469: (January 1906): 139–50.
        Magnus discusses the history and persecution of the Jewish people from the time of the crusades onward.
Garvin, J. L.“THE HOUSE ON PILES: A HISTORY AND A WARNING.” Fortnightly Review, 81, no. 481: (January 1907): 10–29.
        This article discusses the economic, political and military history of Holland. Garvin states that Dutch prosperity did not last and he discusses what caused the turn of events. The coverage is the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.
Ferrero, Guglielmo.“THE HISTORY AND LEGEND OF ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA.” Fortnightly Review, 85, no. 508: (April 1909): 633–46.
        Ferrero states that modern and ancient historians have different opinions of the love story of Cleopatra and Anthony; Modern historians view the romance with a sympathetic eye, while the ancient historians viewed it as dishonourable. Ferrero argues that there was little room for passion and much room for political motives in the relationship between Antony and Cleopatra.
Arthur George.“Military History and an Application: Mr. Fortescue and Lord Kitchener.” Fortnightly Review, 89, no. 532: (April 1911): 693–702.
        Books reviewed are J. W. Fortescue, History of the British Army and Lord Kitchener’s study.
M.“THE BALKAN LEAGUE: HISTORY OF ITS FORMATION.” Fortnightly Review, 93, no. 555: (March 1913): 430–39.
        This article (signed ‘M’) discusses the origins of the Balkan League, those involved and the components of this group. The article brings the history up to 1912.